The negotiations Smith covers are wide-ranging and include the London agreement to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the international space station agreement, the U.S.-Soviet (eventually, U.S.-Russian) agreement on scientific cooperation, the U.S.-Canada acid rain agreement, the negotiations in Sofia, Bulgaria that established a first link between human rights and the environment, and a contentious confrontation with Japan over driftnet fishing. Smith chronicles the development of these negotiations, the challenges that emerged (as much within the U.S. delegations as with the foreign partners), and the strategies that led to substantive treaties.
Smith infuses his narrative with unique historical insight as well as astute observations that can guide U.S. strategies toward productive international agreements in the future. His book also highlights the shift in diplomatic focus over the past 25 years from arms control and other security-related agreements to international and trans-boundary agreements that address global environmental threats and promote cooperative approaches in science and technology.
Written for an audience with a general interest in environmental issues as well as internationalrelations, Negotiating Environment and Science will also be an important resource for historians, political scientists, and students in international law and diplomacy.
The case studies in the book show that, while land markets and especially informal markets have been rapidly emerging in densely populated parts of Africa—and have generally been to the benefit of the poor--their functions remain imperfect. This is due to policy-induced tenure insecurity and the fragmentation of agricultural land. Applying rigorous quantitative analyses, the book provides a basis for taking into account the role of land markets in national land policies. All too often, the authors argue, land policies have been extreme, either prohibiting all land transactions or giving unrestricted freehold rights to a small elite at the expense of the poor. From the long experience in Asia, it is known that such policies are detrimental to both production efficiency and equity of land use. The authors argue that future policies in Africa should work with the markets. Regulations should be imposed only with careful testing that they are having the intended effects.
The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa is a resource for teaching in developed and developing countries, as it provides both comprehensive reviews of the literature and detailed case studies. It is intended to facilitate the dialogue between researchers and policymakers, as well as inspire researchers to go further in their investigations and build an even stronger basis for good policies.The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa is the first publication in the new Environment for Development (EfD) book series. EfD books focus on research and applications in environmental and natural resource economics as they are relevant to poverty reduction and environmental problems in developing countries. The EfD book series is part of the EfD initiative.(www.environmentfordevelopment.org )
About the Environment for Development InitiativeThe Environment for Development (EfD) initiative supports poverty alleviation and sustainable development through the increased use of environmental economics in the policymaking process. The EfD initiative is a capacity-building program focusing on research, policy advice, and teaching. The editor of the series is Thomas Sterner, Professor of Environmental Studies at the University of Gothenberg.
The EfD is managed by the Environmental Economics Unit of the University of Gothenburg. Financial support is provided by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). The six EfD centers in Central America, China, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania are hosted by universities or academic institutions in each respective region or country. Resources for the Future and RFF Press are partners in EfD through research collaboration, communications support, and publications, including the EfD book series. (www.environmentfordevelopment.org)
The debate over Smog Check ended when EPA finally granted California, and the rest of the nation, greater regulatory flexibility. Fundamental to the Smog Check controversy were questions about federal versus state authority as well as battles between colorful personalities. In his new book, Smog Check, Douglas S. Eisinger presents these struggles in fascinating, first-hand detail. Eisinger, an EPA official at the time of this conflict, probes deeply into the issues and explores broader questions including: when does it become imperative for agencies to bargain with one another, when should regulatory flexibility and performance-based regulations be favored over command and control approaches, what should be done when decisions need to be made in the face of scientific disagreement about both the scope of a problem and the effectiveness of different solutions? He concludes the book with commentary from other former EPA officials who were witnesses or participants in the Smog Check controversy.
Smog Check is engaging reading for students interested in intergovernmental relations and regulatory reform. It provides insight for policy professionals involved in environmentalprotection whenever it involves coordination between federal and state or local agencies.
The connections between communities and forests are complex and evolving, presenting challenges to forest managers, researchers, and communities themselves. This book examines the responses of forest communities to changing forest values, changing federal policy, timber industry restructuring, and concerns about forest health. Focusing primarily on the United States, the book examines the ways that social scientists work with communities--their role in facilitating social learning, informing policy decisions, and contributing to community well being.
As dependency on timber extraction is no longer a universal characteristic of forest communities, residents are increasingly diverse in the cultural, economic, and aesthetic values that they attribute to forests. Remoteness also no longer applies, as technology and workforce mobility increasingly connect rural to urban places. And forest communities are more than just full-time residents; they include seasonal workers, part-year vacation residents, and urban dwellers who regularly return to forests for recreation. Forest communities are both place and interest-based; they are linked geographically, culturally, and economically to forest lands, and also politically. Forest Community Connections, synthesizes available research on the changing characteristics of forest communities. Bringing perspectives from sociology, anthropology, political science, and forestry, the authors examine the factors that contribute to strong and resilient connections between communities and forests and those that undermine them. They explore a range of management issues, including wildfire, forest restoration, labor force capacity, and the growing demand for forest amenities, and consider a range of governance structures to positively influence the well being of both communities and forests, including collaboration and community-forestry.